In History written in 1079–1080, the Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates referred to the Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the duke of Dyrrachium. It is disputed, however, whether that refers to Albanians in an ethnic sense. However a later reference to Albanians from the same Attaliates, regarding the participation of Albanians in a rebellion around 1078, is undisputed. In later Byzantine usage, the terms “Arbanitai” and “Albanoi”, with a range of variants, were used interchangeably, while sometimes the same groups were also classified under the name Illyrians. The first reference to the Albanian language dates to the later 13th century (around 1285).
The Albanians are and have been referred to by other terms as well. Some of them are:
- Arbër, Arbën, Arbëreshë; the old native term denoting ancient and medieval Albanians and sharing the same root with the latter. At the time the country was called Arbër (Gheg: Arbën) and Arbëria (Gheg: Arbënia). This term is still used for the Albanians that migrated to Italy during the Middle Ages.
- Arnauts (ارناود); old term used mainly from Turks and by extension by European authors during the Ottoman Empire. A derivate of the Turkish Arvanid (Arnavut) (اروانيد), which derives from the Greek Arvanites.
- Skipetars; the historical rendering of the ethnonym Shqiptar (or Shqyptar by French, Austrian and German authors) in use from the 18th century (but probably earlier) to the present, the literal translation of which is subject of the eagle. The term Šiptari is a derivation used by Yugoslavs which the Albanians consider derogatory, preferring Albanci instead.
Origin of the Albanian people
Various genetic studies have been done on the European population, some of them including current Albanian population, Albanian-speaking populations outside Albania, and the Balkan region as a whole.
The two haplogroups most strongly associated with Albanian people (E-V13 and J2b) are often considered to have arrived in Europe from the Near East with the Neolithic revolution or late Mesolithic, early in the Holocene epoch. From here in the Balkans, it is thought, they spread to the rest of Europe.
The distribution of E-V13 in Europe
- Y haplogroup E1b1b (E-M35) in the modern Balkan population is dominated by its sub-clade E1b1b1a (E-M78) and specifically by the most common European sub-clade of E-M78, E-V13. Most E-V13 in Europe and elsewhere descend from a common ancestor who lived in the late Mesolithic or Neolithic, possibly in the Balkans. The current distribution of this lineage might be the result of several demographic expansions from the Balkans, such as that associated with the Neolithic revolution, the Balkan Bronze Age, and more recently, during the Roman era during the so-called “rise of Illyrican soldiery”.
- Y haplogroup J in the modern Balkans is mainly represented by the sub-clade J2b (also known as J-M12 or J-M102 for example). Like E-V13, this clade is spread throughout Europe with a seeming centre and origin near Albania.
Common in the Balkans but not specifically associated with Albania and the Albanian language are I-M423 and R1a-M17:
- Y haplogroup I is found mostly in Europe, and may have been there since before the LGM. Several of its sub-clades are found in significant amounts in the Balkans. The specific I sub-clade which has attracted most discussion in Balkan studies currently referred to as I2a2, defined by SNP M423 This clade has higher frequencies to the north of the Albanophone area, in Dalmatia and Bosnia.
- Haplogroup R1a is common in Central and Eastern Europe (and is also common in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent). In the Balkans, it is strongly associated with Slavic areas.
The other most common Y haplogroup in the Balkans has strong associations with many parts of Europe:
- Haplogroup R1b is common all over Europe but especially common on the western Atlantic coast of Europe, and is also found in the Middle East and some parts of Africa. In Europe including the Balkans, it tends to be less common in Slavic speaking areas, where R1a is often the most common haplogroup. It shows similar frequencies among Albanians and Greeks at around 20% of the male population, but is much less common in Serbia and Bosnia.
A study by Peričić et al. in 2005 found the following Y-Dna haplogroup frequencies in Albanians from Kosovo with haplogroup E1b1b and its subclades representing 47.4% of the total:
Another study of old Balkan populations and their genetic affinities with current European populations was done in 2004, based on mitochondrial DNA on the skeletal remains of some old Thracian populations from SE of Romania, dating from the Bronze and Iron Age. This study was during excavations of some human fossil bones of 20 individuals dating about 3200–4100 years, from the Bronze Age, belonging to some cultures such as Tei, Monteoru and Noua were found in graves from some necropoles SE of Romania, namely in Zimnicea, Smeeni, Candesti, Cioinagi-Balintesti, Gradistea-Coslogeni and Sultana-Malu Rosu; and the human fossil bones and teeth of 27 individuals from the early Iron Age, dating from the 10th to 7th centuries BC from the Hallstatt Era (the Babadag culture), were found extremely SE of Romania near the Black Sea coast, in some settlements from Dobrogea, namely: Jurilovca, Satu Nou, Babadag, Niculitel and Enisala-Palanca. After comparing this material with the present-day European population, the authors concluded:
Computing the frequency of common point mutations of the present-day European population with the Thracian population has resulted that the Italian (7.9%), the Albanian (6.3%) and the Greek (5.8%) have shown a bias of closer genetic kinship with the Thracian individuals than the Romanian and Bulgarian individuals (only 4.2%).
Analysis of autosomal DNA, which analyses all genetic components has revealed that few genetic discontinuities exist in European populations, apart from certain outliers such as Saami, Sardinians, Basques and Kosovar Albanians. They found that Albanians, on the one hand, have a high amount of identity by descent sharing, suggesting that both Albanians from Albania and Kosovo derived from a relatively small population that expanded recently and rapidly in the last 1,500 years. On the other hand, they are not wholly isolated or endogamous, as they share a significant amount of descent with nearby Macedonian, Greek and Italian populations. The recent growth is particularly evident in Kosovar Albanians, which show particularly high levels of homogeneity, in contrast to the diversity otherwise found in other Balkan populations.
In the Middle Ages
“It can be seen that there are various languages on earth. Of them, there are five Orthodox languages: Bulgarian, Greek, Syrian, Iberian (Georgian) and Russian. Three of these have Orthodox alphabets: Greek, Bulgarian and Iberian. There are twelve languages of half-believers: Alamanians, Franks, Magyars (Hungarians), Indians, Jacobites, Armenians, Saxons, Lechs (Poles), Arbanasi (Albanians), Croatians, Hizi, Germans.”
The first undisputed mention of Albanians in the historical record is attested in Byzantine source for the first time in 1079–1080, in a work titled History by Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates, who referred to theAlbanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the duke of Dyrrachium. It is disputed, however, whether the “Albanoi” of the events of 1043 refers to Albanians in an ethnic sense or whether “Albanoi” is a reference to Normans from Sicily under an archaic name (there was also tribe of Italy by the name of “Albanoi”). However a later reference to Albanians from the same Attaleiates, regarding the participation of Albanians in a rebellion around 1078, is undisputed. At this point, they are already fully Christianized, although Albanian mythology and folklore are part of the Paleo-Balkan pagan mythology, in particular showing Greek influence.
From late 11th century the Albanians were called Arbën/Arbër and their country as Arbanon, a mountainous area to the west of Lake Ochrida and the upper valley of the river Shkumbin. It was in 1190, when the rulers of Arbanon (local Albanian noble called Progon and his sons Dhimitër and Gjin) created their principality with its capital at Krujë. After the fall of Progon Dynasty in 1216, the principality came under Grigor Kamona and Gulam of Albania. Finally the Principality was dissolved on 1255. Around 1230 the two main centers of Albanian settlements, one around Devoll river in what is now central Albania, and the other around the region which was known with the name Arbanon.
In 1271 Charles of Anjou after he captured Durrës from Despotate of Epirus, created the Kingdom of Albania. In the 14th century a number of Albanian principalities were created.
Under the Ottoman Empire
Approximately 7 million Albanians are to be found within the Balkan peninsula with about half this number residing in Albania and the other divided between Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece and to a much smaller extent Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Slovenia.
Albania has an estimated 3 million inhabitants, with ethnic Albanians comprising approximately 95% of the total.
An estimated 3.2 million Albanians live in the territory of Former Yugoslavia, the greater part (close to two million) in Kosovo.[a]
Rights to use the Albanian language in education and government were given and guaranteed by the 1974 Constitution of SFRY and were widely utilized in Macedonia and in Montenegro before the Dissolution of Yugoslavia.
An estimated 275,000–600,000 Albanians live in Greece, forming the largest immigrant community in the country. They are economic migrants whose migration began in 1991, following the collapse of the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania.
The Arvanites and Albanian-speakers of Western Thrace are a group descended from Tosks. They are Greek Orthodox Christians, and though they traditionally speak a dialect of Tosk Albanian known as Arvanitika, they have fully assimilated into the Greek nation and do not identify as Albanians. Arvanitika is in a state of attrition due to language shift towards Greek and large-scale internal migration to the cities and subsequent intermingling of the population during the 20th century.
The Cham Albanians were a group that formerly inhabited a region of Epirus known as Chameria, nowadays Thesprotia in northwestern Greece. Most Cham Albanians converted to Islam during the Ottoman era. Muslim Chams were expelled from Greece during World War II, by an anti-communist resistance group, allegedly under the accusation of participating in a communist resistance group and the collaboration with the Axis occupation, while Orthodox Chams have largely forced to be assimilated into the Greek nation.
Albanians in Europe.
Approximately 1 million are dispersed throughout the rest of Europe, most of these in Italy (502,546), Germany (320,000), Switzerland (200,000), Sweden (60,000), and the UK.
Italy has a historical Albanian minority known as the Arbëreshë (260,000) which are scattered across Southern Italy, but the majority of Albanians in Italy arrived in 1991 and have since surpassed the older populations of Arbëreshë.
According to a 2008 report prepared for the National Security Council of Turkey by academics of three Turkish universities in eastern Anatolia, there were approximately 1,300,000 people of Albanian descent living in Turkey.A part of these people have assimilated to the culture of Turkey, and consider themselves more Turkish than Albanian. Nonetheless, more than 500,000 Albanian descendants still recognize their ancestry like their languages, culture and traditions.
In Egypt there are 18,000 Albanians, mostly Tosk speakers. Many are descendants of the Janissary of Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian who became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. In addition to thedynasty that he established, a large part of the former Egyptian and Sudanese aristocracy was of Albanian origin. Albanian Sunnis, Bektashis and Orthodox Christians were all represented in this diaspora, whose members at some point included major Renaissance figures (Rilindasit), including Fan Noli who lived in Egypt for a time. With the ascension of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt and his ideology of Arab nationalism, the last remnants of Albanian community there were forced to leave.
According to the 2010 American Community Survey, there are 193,813 Albanian Americans (American citizens of full or partial Albanian descent).
In Australia and New Zealand there are a total of 22,000 Albanians. Albanians are also known to reside in China, India, Iran, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan and Singapore, but the numbers are generally small. Albanians have been present in Arab countries such as Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria for about five centuries as a legacy of Ottoman Turkish rule.
A few Prominent Albanians
- Skanderbeg – 15th-century Albanian lord, leader of the League of Lezhë
- Ismail Qemali – Founder of the Independent Albania
- Lorik Cana – football player
- Isa Boletini – Albanian nationalist
- Agim Kaba – Emmy-nominated actor and artist
- Dritëro Agolli – poet, writer
- Eliza Dushku – American actor
- Ernesto Sabato (1911–2011) – Argentinian writer, painter and physicist of Arbëreshë descent
- Gjon Buzuku – Catholic cleric; author of the first book written in Albanian
- Gjon Mili – Albanian-American photographer
- Ibrahim Rugova – ex president of Kosovo
- Inva Mula – opera soprano
- Ismail Kadare – writer
- James Biberi – actor
- Jim Belushi – American actor and comedian
- John Belushi – American actor and comedian
- Karl Gega – architect
- Adnan Januzaj – football player
- Mohammed Ali Pasha – Viceroy of Egypt and Sudan
- Mother Teresa – beatified Catholic nun
- Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani – Islamic scholar
- Naim Kryeziu – football player
- Rexhep Qosja – Albanian politician and literary critic
- Rita Ora – British singer
- Sedefkar Mehmed Agha – architect of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque (the “Blue Mosque”) in Istanbul
- Viktor Karpaçi – painter of Renaissance
- Aleksander Moisiu – stage actor
- Ali Sami Yen 20 May 1886 – 29 July 1951 – founder of the Galatasaray Sports Club
- Mit’hat Frashëri – Albanian diplomat, writer and politician
- Ali Pasha of Tepelena – Albanian ruler
- Zog I of Albania – King of Albania
- The totals are obtained as the sum of the referenced populations (lowest and highest figures) below in the infobox.
- Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo’s independence has been recognised by 109 out of 193 United Nations member states.
- Edith Durham. The Burden of the Balkans, (1905)
- “Main Results of Population and Housing Census 2011”. INSTAT. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
- See 2011 Census[dead link], the preliminary results of the 2011 census in the Republic of Kosovo show the national population at 1,733,872 but the census was boycotted in North Kosovo and this figure does not include the entire population of Kosovo. The 2011 census revealed a figure of 1,616,869 people declaring as Albanians).
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- ^ Jump up to:a b https://books.google.al/books?id=-7dq8mi0DWkC&pg=PA38&lpg=PA38&dq=5+million+albanians+in+turkey&source=bl&ots=_998M5uAPE&sig=KIYpZ3fp9IWouHunaZBrUBt-fT4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=i6_bVMidFoqtUYySg5AE&ved=0CFEQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=5%20million%20albanians%20in%20turkey&f=false
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- Albanian, Arbëreshë – A language of Italy – Ethnic population: 260,000 (Stephens 1976).
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- The theory linking the ethnoym to the verb ‘to speak’ was advanced by Hahn who suggested it was perhaps a Latin loan word from excipio. See Robert Elsie, A dictionary of Albanian religion, mythology and folk culture, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2001, ISBN 978-1-85065-570-1, p. 79.
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- The wars of the Balkan Peninsula: their medieval origins G – Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series Authors Alexandru Madgearu, Martin Gordon Editor Martin Gordon Translated by Alexandru Madgearu Edition illustrated Publisher Scarecrow Press, 2008 ISBN 0-8108-5846-0, ISBN 978-0-8108-5846-6 It was supposed that those Albanoi from 1042 were Normans from Sicily, called by an archaic name (the Albanoi were an independent tribe from Southern Italy). The following instance is indisputable. It comes from the same Attaliates, who wrote that the Albanians (Arbanitai) were involved in the 1078; rebellion of… p. 25
- Mazaris 1975, pp. 76–79.
- N. Gregoras (ed. Bonn) V, 6; XI, 6.
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- R. Elsie: Early Albania, a Reader of Historical Texts, 11th – 17th Centuries, Wiesbaden 2003, p. 3
- Extract from: Grujic, Radoslav: Legenda iz vremena Cara Samuila o poreklu naroda. in: Glasnik skopskog naucnog drustva, Skopje, 13 (1934), p. 198 200. Translated from the Old Church Slavonic by Robert Elsie. First published in R. Elsie: Early Albania, a Reader of Historical Texts, 11th – 17th Centuries, Wiesbaden 2003, p. 3. Albanian History[dead link]
- Madgearu, Alexandru; Gordon, Martin (2008). Gordon, Martin, ed. The wars of the Balkan Peninsula: their medieval origins G – Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Translated by Alexandru Madgearu. Scarecrow Press. p. 25.ISBN 978-0-8108-5846-6. It is still disputed by scholars that those Albanoi from 1042 were Normans from Sicily, [Southern Italy)], or if they are in fact the Albanoi [a large clan of that belongs to the many clans of Albanians] found in Albanian lands during this time frame.
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- Studies in late Byzantine history and prosopography Volume 242 of Collected studies Variorum reprints ; CS242 Volume 242 of Variorum reprint Author Donald MacGillivray Nicol Edition illustrated Publisher Variorum Reprints, 1986 ISBN 0-86078-190-9, ISBN 978-0-86078-190-5 page. 160 “The geographical location of the mysterious ‘Arbanon’ has at last no doubt been settled by the researches of Alain Ducellier. In the 11th century at least it was the name given to the mountainous area to the west of Lake Ohrid and the upper valley of the river Shkumbin…”
- The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 1198 – c. 1300 Volume 5 of The New Cambridge Medieval History, Rosamond McKitterick, ISBN 0-521-85360-5, ISBN 978-0-521-85360-6Author David Abulafia Editors David Abulafia, Rosamond McKitterick Contributors David Abulafia, Rosamond McKitterick Edition illustrated, reprint Publisher Cambridge University Press, 1999 ISBN 0-521-36289-X, 9780521362894 page 780
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- The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 1198 – c. 1300 Volume 5 of The New Cambridge Medieval History, Rosamond McKitterick, ISBN 0-521-85360-5, ISBN 978-0-521-85360-6Author David Abulafia Editors David Abulafia, Rosamond McKitterick Contributors David Abulafia, Rosamond McKitterick Edition illustrated, reprint Publisher Cambridge University Press, 1999 ISBN 0-521-36289-X, 9780521362894 page 780-781
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- AK- Nishanit: Hiqi ‘Urdhrin e Skënderbeut’ Janullatosit, dekoro themeluesit e Kishës Autoqefale Shqiptare (LETRA) | Gazeta Tema
- Prifti: Në Shqipëri ka një axhendë anti-ortodokse | Gazeta Tema
- INTERVISTA/ Vangjel Dule: Autorët e censusit, manipulatorë të realitetit. Rezoluta çame? historia nuk ribëhet | Gazeta Tema
- Censusi, shumë prej pyetjeve plotësoheshin nga vetë anketuesit | Gazeta Tema
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- “Albania: International Religious Freedom Report 2007”. State.gov. 14 September 2007. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
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- Plutarch’s Lives: Translated from the Original Greek, with Notes …, Volume 4 By Plutarch, John Langhorne, William Langhorne
- Cruciani, F; La Fratta, R; Trombetta, B; Santolamazza, P; Sellitto, D; Colomb, EB; Dugoujon, JM; Crivellaro, F et al. (2007).”Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12″. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24 (6): 1300–1311. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm049. PMID 17351267. Also seeSupplementary Data.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Battaglia, V.; Fornarino, S; Al-Zahery, N; Olivieri, A; Pala, M; Myres, NM; King, RJ; Rootsi, S et al. (2008). “Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe”. European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6): 820–30.doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. PMC 2947100. PMID 19107149.
- Jump up^ Bird, Steven (2007). “Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin”. Journal of Genetic Genealogy 3 (2).
- ^ Jump up to:a b Semino; Passarino, G; Oefner, PJ; Lin, AA; Arbuzova, S; Beckman, LE; De Benedictis, G; Francalacci, P et al. (2000). “The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective” (PDF). Science 290 (5494): 1155–59.doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453.
- Jump up^ Cruciani, F; La Fratta, R; Santolamazza, P; Sellitto, D; Pascone, R; Moral, P; Watson, E; Guida, V et al. (May 2004). “Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa” (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (5): 1014–1022. doi:10.1086/386294. PMC 1181964. PMID 15042509.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Peričic; Lauc, LB; Klarić, IM; Rootsi, S; Janićijevic, B; Rudan, I; Terzić, R; Colak, I et al. (2005). “High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations”. Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (10): 1964–75. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443.
- Jump up^ Latest designations can be found on the [www.isogg.org ISOGG] website. In some articles this is described as I-P37.2 not including I-M26.
- Jump up^ Rootsi et al. (2004) Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe
- Jump up^ Peričić et al. (2005), High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations, Mol Biol Evol (October 2005) 22 (10): 1964-1975. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185
- ^ Jump up to:Cardos G., Stoian V., Miritoiu N., Comsa A., Kroll A., Voss S., Rodewald A. (2004 Romanian Society of Legal Medicine) Paleo-mtDNA analysis and population genetic aspects of old Thracian populations from South-East of Romania
- Jump up^ 
- Jump up^ Novembre J. et al. (2008) Genes mirror geography within Europe, Nature doi:10.1038/nature07331
External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to Albanians.
- Albanians in Turkey
- Albanian Canadian League Information Service (ACLIS)
- Albanians in the Balkans[dead link] U.S. Institute of Peace Report, November 2001
- Books about Albania and the Albanian people (scribd.com) Reference of books (and some journal articles) about Albania and the Albanian people; their history, language, origin, culture, literature, and so on Public domain books, fully accessible online.